Biology Faculty and Staff
Bruce Schulte, Ph.D. SUNY-ESF
- Department Head of Biology
- Email: email@example.com
- Office: EBS 2101B
- Phone Number: 270-745-4856
- Website: https://www.wku.edu/schultebehaviorlab/
- Curriculum Vitae: Curriculum Vitae
BIOL 113 General Biology
BIOL 315 Ecology
BIOL 334 Animal Behavior
BIOL 380 Challenges of a Changing Biosphere
BIOL 532 Behavioral Ecology
BIOL 533 Behavioral Ecology Lab
BIOL 534 Chemical Ecology
BIOL 543 Environmental Science Concepts
Communication and social behavior of herbivorous mammals, such as elephants, manatees, beavers and horses
Our research group examines the development of social and reproductive behaviors as well as the mechanisms, especially chemical that mediate these interactions. In recent years, we have taken more of a conservation behavior approach, as we work to reduce human-wildlife conflict by studying the behavioral ecology of these species, specifically their modes of communication, reproductive patterns and social systems. Thus, applications of our research hope to use an understanding of behavior to facilitate positive human-animal interactions.
Doctorate of Philosophy in Biology (1993). State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
Master of Science in Biology. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
Bachelor of Science in Biology. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
Hacker CE, Miller LJ, Schulte BA. 2018. Examination of enrichment using space and food for African elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Animal Welfare, in press.
Githiru M, Mutwiwa U, Kasaine S, Schulte B. 2017. A spanner in the works: Human-elephant conflict complicates the energy-food-water nexus in drylands of Africa. Frontiers in Environmental Science, doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2017.00069.
Edge A, Henley M, Daday J, Schulte BA. 2017. Examining human perception of elephants and large trees for insights into conservation of an African savanna ecosystem. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/Dias9sfHPVp6HWuEy7G5/full.
Youldon DA, Abell J, Briffitt JS, Chama L, Channings MD, Kilundo AS, Larson CK, Sakal D, Schulte BA. 2017. Patch - occupancy survey of elephant (Loxodonta africana) surrounding Livingstone, Zambia. Koedoe, 59(1), a1372. https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1372.
Hazelkorn RA, Schulte BA, Cox TM. 2016. Persistent effects of begging on common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus behavior in an estuarine population. Aquatic Mammals, 42, 531-541.
Derham KS, Henley MD, Schulte BA. 2016. Wire netting reduces African elephant (Loxodonta africana) impact to selected trees in South Africa. Koedoe, 58(1), a1327. http://dx.doi. org/10.4102/koedoe. v58i1.1327.
Peterson EK, Schulte BA. 2016. Impacts of pollutants on beavers and otters with implications for ecosystem ramifications. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, 157, 33-45.
Schulte BA. 2016. Learning and applications of chemical signal in vertebrates for human-wildlife conflict mitigation. In: Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13 (BA Schulte, TE Goodwin & MH Ferkin, eds), in press, Springer, New Yor
Rasmussen LEL, Greenwood DR, Goodwin TE, Schulte BA. 2016. Asian elephant reflections: chirality counts. In: Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13 (BA Schulte, TE Goodwin & MH Ferkin, eds), in press, Springer, New York.
Goodwin TE, Harelimana H, MacDonald LJ, Mark DB, Juru AU, Yin Q, Engman JA, Kopper RA, Lichti CF, Mackintosh SG, Shoemaker JD, Sutherland MV, Tackett AJ, Schulte BA. 2016. The role of bacteria in chemical signals of elephant musth: proximate causes and biochemical pathways. In: Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13 (BA Schulte, TE Goodwin & MH Ferkin, eds), in press, Springer, New York.
Goodyear SE, Schulte BA. 2015. Habituation to auditory stimuli by captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Animal Behavior and Cognition 2, 292-312.
Wisniewska M, Freeman EW, Schulte BA. 2015. Behavioural patterns among female African savannah elephants: the role of age, lactational status, and sex of the nursing calf. Behaviour 152, 1719-1744. DOI:10.1163/1568539X-00003301.
Hoffmeier-Karimi RR, Schulte BA. 2015. Assessing perceived and documented crop damage in a Tanzanian village impacted by human-elephant conflict (HEC). Pachyderm 56, 51-60.
York, C.A. & Schulte, B.A. 2014. The relationship of dominance, reproductive state and stress in female horses (Equus caballus). Behavioural Processes 107, 15-21.
Freeman, E.W., Meyer, J.M., Addendorf, J., Bird, J., Schulte, B.A. & Santymire, R.M. 2014. Impacts of environmental pressures on the reproductive physiology of subpopulations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Conservation Physiology, in press.
Freeman, E.W., Meyer, J.M., Addendorf, J., Schulte, B.A. & Santymire, R.M. 2014. Scraping behavior of black rhinoceros is related to age and fecal gonadal metabolite concentrations. Journal of Mammalogy, 95(2), in press.
Freeman, E.W., Meyer, J.M., Putman, S.B, Schulte, B.A. & Brown, J.L. 2013. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Conservation Physiology, 1, 1-15.
Schulte, B.A., Bagley, K.R., Castelda, S., Loizi, H., Nasseri, N., Vyas, D.K. & Goodwin, T.E. 2013. From exploration to selective information gathering: the development of chemosensory investigation in male African elephants (Loxodonta africana). In: Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 12 (M. East & M. Dehnhard, eds), pp. 135-145, Springer, New York.
Goodwin, T.E., Broederdorf, L.J., Burkert, B.A., Hirwa, H.H., Mark, D.B., Waldrip, Z.J., Kopper, R.A., Sutherland, M.V. , Freeman, E.W., Hollister-Smith, J.A., and Schulte, B.A. 2012. Chemical signals of elephant musth: I. Temporal aspects of microorganism-mediated modifications. Journal of Chemical Ecology,38, 81-87(DOI 10.1007/s10886-011-0056-8).
Freeman, E.W., Meyer, J.M., Putman, S., Schulte, B.A. & Brown, J.L. 2011. Using a simplified field progestagen method to assess ovarian activity in female African elephants. Biological Conservation, 144, 2105–2111.
Castelda, S., Napora, E., Nasseri, N., Vyas, D. & Schulte, B.A. 2011. Diurnal co-occurrence of African elephants and other mammals at a Tanzanian waterhole. African Journal of Ecology, 49, 250-252. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2010.01249.x
Nasseri, N.A., McBrayer, L.A. & Schulte, B.A. 2011. The impact of tree modification by African elephant (Loxodonta africana) on herpetofaunal species richness in northern Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 49, 133-140.DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2010.01238.x
Freeman, E.W., Schulte, B.A. & Brown, J.L. 2010. Using behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires to assess social relationships among captive female African elephants. Zoo Biology, 29, 140-153. 10.1002/zoo.20249.
Freeman, E.W., Schulte, B.A. & Brown, J.L. 2010. Investigating the impact of rank and ovarian activity on the social behavior of captive female African elephants. Zoo Biology, 29, 154-167. 10.1002/zoo.20235
Freeman, E.W., Abbondanza, F.N., Meyer, J.M., Schulte, B.A. & Brown, J.L. 2010. A simplified method for monitoring progestagens in African elephants under field conditions. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 1, 86-91. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00004.x
Riddle, H.S., Schulte, B.A., Desai, A.A. & van der Meer, L. 2010. Elephants – a conservation overview. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 2, 653-661.
Merte, C.E., Goodwin, T.E. & Schulte, B.A. 2010. Male and female developmental differences in chemosensory investigations by African elephants (Loxodonta africana) approaching waterholes. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 64, 401-408. DOI 10.1007/s00265-009-0856-9.
Merte, C.E., Gough, K.F. & Schulte, B.A. 2009. Investigation of a fresh African elephant carcass by conspecifics. Pachyderm, 45, 124-126.
Goodwin, T.E. & Schulte, B.A. 2009. Prospecting for mammalian chemical signals via solventless extraction techniques: an elephantine task. ChemoSense 11(2), 9-15.
Brzyski, J.R. & Schulte, B.A. 2009. Beaver (Castor canadensis) impacts on herbaceous and woody vegetation in southeastern Georgia. American Midland Naturalist, 162, 81-93.
Loizi, H., Goodwin, T.E., Rasmussen, L.E.L., Whitehouse, A.M. & Schulte, B.A. 2009. Sexual dimorphism in the performance of chemosensory investigatory behaviours by African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Behaviour, 146, 373-392.